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  Royal Family of the Netherlands

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Owlet
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PostSubject: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 6:07 pm

The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since.
The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands and at times in Europe since William I of Orange (also known as "William the Silent" and "Father of the Fatherland") organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state.
The Dutch Republic officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën) was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 6:20 pm

Under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, the Netherlands region was part of the Seventeen Provinces, which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some land in France and Germany.

Willem de Zwijger (William the Silent) (24 April 1533 10 July 1584),
leader of the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 6:51 pm

The Dutch Empire grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers of the 17th century. In the Dutch Golden Age ("Gouden Eeuw"), colonies and trading posts were established all over the world.

Daily life during the Dutch Golden Age captured in a painting by Jan Steen.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 7:02 pm

William V , Prince of Orange-Nassau (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and between 1795 and 1806 he led the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile in London. He was succeeded by his son William I. An English historian summed him up uncharitably as " a Prince of the profoundest lethargy and most abysmal stupidity."

Willem V of Orange and Wilhelmina of Prussia with their children from left to right: the future King William I of the Netherlands, Frederick, and Frederica Louise Wilhelmina, later Princess of Brunswick-Luneburg.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 7:06 pm


William I Frederick, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau
(24 August 1772 12 December 1843), was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 7:10 pm


King William II by Jan Baptist van der Hulst.
William II (Willem Frederik George Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau) (6 December 1792 17 March 1849) was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg from 7 October 1840 until his death in 1849.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 7:18 pm

Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia (Russian: ; St. Petersburg, 18 January 1795 The Hague, 1 March 1865) was a queen consort of the Netherlands.

Portrait by Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1837
She was born as the eighth child and sixth daughter of Paul I of Russia and Empress Maria Feodorovna (born Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), and thus was Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia. In the Netherlands, due to nineteenth century Dutch transliteration conventions, she is better known as Anna Paulowna.

At one time, Emperor Napoleon I of France had asked for her hand in marriage and been

On 21 February 1816 at the Chapel of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, she married the Prince of Orange, who would later become King William II of the Netherlands. The marriage had been suggested by her brother the Tsar Alexander I in 1815, as a symbol of the alliance created after the Congress of Vienna. As it had been decided that no member of the Romanov family should be forced to marry against their will, William was invited to Russia before the wedding so that Anna could get to know him and consent to marry him, which she did. She kept her own religion after the marriage. The couple remained in Russia for one year.

Anna Pavlovna was shocked over the differences between Russia and her new home country, especially when it came to the class system and the separation between the classes, which was much less strict in the Netherlands, where the distance between royalty and the public was not as great as in Russia, and she had difficulties adjusting herself to this. The couple lived in Brussels until the Belgian revolution forced them to leave in 1830. Anna liked Brussels much more than the North, as it reminded her more of her native country. She founded a school where poor women and girls were educated in sewing (1832), and a hospital for soldiers wounded in the Belgian revolution (1830).

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 7:36 pm

William III (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk, anglicised: William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis) (19 February 1817 23 November 1890) was from 1849 King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg until his death and the Duke of Limburg until the abolition of the Duchy in 1866.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 8:02 pm

Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 - 28 November 1962) was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948. She ruled the Netherlands for fifty-eight years, longer than any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the economic crisis of 1933, and the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial empire. Outside the Netherlands she is primarily remembered for her role in World War II, in which she proved to be a great inspiration to the Dutch resistance.

Queen Wilhelmina in the 1890s

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 8:07 pm

Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
King William III had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg. However, when Wilhelmina was born, William had already outlived two of them and only the childless Prince Alexander and the King's uncle Prince Frederick of the Netherlands were alive, so under the Semi-Salic system of inheritance that was in place in the Netherlands until 1887, she was third in line to the throne from birth. When Prince Frederick died a year later in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the young girl became heiress presumptive.
King William III died on 23 November 1890, and, although Princess Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, Emma, was named regent.

Queen Wilhelmina wearing her coronation robe in 1898,
after a painting by Thérèse van Duyl Schwarze.

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 8:27 pm

Wilhelmina was enthroned on 6 September 1898.
On 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Wilhelmina suffered miscarriages in 1901 and 1906, and gave birth to a stillborn son in 1902. During this time period, Wilhelmina's heir presumptive was her first cousin once removed William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and next in line was his aunt (and Wilhelmina's cousin) Princess Marie Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. As it was assumed that the former would renounce his claim to the Dutch throne, and that the latter was too elderly and sickly to become Queen, Marie Alexandrine's eldest son Prince Heinrich XXXII Reuss of Köstritz stood in line to succeed Wilhelmina, assuming she had no surviving children. Heinrich was a German prince with close associations with the Imperial family and the military; and there were fears that were the Queen to remain childless, the Dutch Crown "was bound to pass into the possession of a German prince, whose birth, training, and affiliations would naturally have led him to bring Holland within the sphere of the German Empire, at the expense of her independence, both national and economic", according to one contemporary publication. The birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage. Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages in 1912.

Queen Wilhelmina and her daughter Juliana, circa 1914

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 8:50 pm

Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 20 March 2004) was the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands between 1948 and 1980. She was the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry.

Juliana in 1933

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 9:04 pm

In the 1930s, Queen Wilhelmina began a search for a suitable husband for her daughter. At the time, the House of Orange was one of the most strictly religious royal families in the world, and it was very difficult to find a Protestant Prince who suited their standards. Princes from the United Kingdom and Sweden were "vetted" but either declined or were rejected by the Princess.

At the 1936 Winter Olympics in Bavaria, she met Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a young German aristocrat. Prince Bernhard was a suave young businessman, and though not a playboy, certainly a "man about town" with a dashing lifestyle. But his rank and religion were suitable, and so Princess Juliana's royal engagement was arranged by her mother.

Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard after their engagement
They had four children: Princess Beatrix (born 1938), Princess Irene (born 1939), Princess Margriet (born 1943), Princess Christina (born 1947).

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 9:25 pm

During the Second World War she lived in exile with her children in Ottawa, Canada.

Crown Prince Olav of Norway, Princess Juliana, Eleanor Roosevelt, Crown Princess Märtha,
and Thomas J. Watson in 1944

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PostSubject: Re: Royal Family of the Netherlands   Wed Nov 02, 2011 9:38 pm

She became Queen of the Netherlands with her mother's abdication in 1948.

Queen Juliana in the Golden Carriage on the day of her inauguration as Queen in 1948
She was succeeded by Queen Beatrix after her own abdication in 1980. During her reign both Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) proclaimed in 1945, but recognized in 1949 and Suriname in 1975 became independent from the Netherlands. Her birthday is celebrated annually as Koninginnedag, Queen's Day. Upon her death at the age of 94, she was the longest-lived former ruling monarch in the world. She is commemorated in space, in the name of the asteroid 816 Juliana.

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