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 British Royal Family

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Owlet
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PostSubject: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 1:49 pm


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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 2:08 pm


King Henry VIII
(28 June 1491 28 January 1547), was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.
Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Catholic Church.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 2:26 pm


Edward VI (12 October 1537 6 July 1553)
became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine.[1] The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first ruler who was raised as a Protestant.
Edward fell ill in February 1553, and when his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", attempting to prevent the country being returned to Catholicism. Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However, this was disputed following Edward's death and Jane was queen for only nine days before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen. She proceeded to reverse many of Edward's Protestant reforms, but Elizabeth's religious settlement of 1559 would secure his Protestant legacy.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 2:37 pm


Queen Mary I (18 February 1516 17 November 1558),
was Queen regnant of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
She was the eldest daughter of Henry VIII and only surviving child of Catherine of Aragon. As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, she is remembered for restoring England to Roman Catholicism after succeeding her short-lived Protestant half brother, Edward VI.
In the process, she had almost 300 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, earning her the sobriquet of "Bloody Mary". Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 3:33 pm

The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor, a descendant through his mother of a legitimized branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extirpated.
Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII. His victory was reinforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty. The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland. They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of France, but none of them tried to make substance of it, though Henry VIII fought wars with France to try and reclaim that title. After him, his daughter Mary I lost the claim on France forever with the Fall of Calais.
In total, five Tudor monarchs ruled their domains for just over a century.
Henry VIII of England was the only male-line male heir of Henry VII to live to the age of majority. Issues around the Royal succession (including marriage, divorce, and the succession rights of women) became major political themes during the Tudor era.

The Tudor line failed in 1603 with the death of Elizabeth I of England, who died without any children to succeed her. Through secret negotiations with her cousin James, King of Scotland, (whose great-grandmother was Henry VIII's elder sister, Margaret) Elizabeth arranged the succession of the House of Stuart to the English throne, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in a personal union.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 4:08 pm


Elizabeth I
(7 September 1533 24 March 1603) was Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate.
Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 4:33 pm

The House of Stuart (also known as the House of Stewart) is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of Great Britain and Ireland. Their direct ancestors (from Brittany) had held the title High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also upholding a claim to the Kingdom of France.
In total, nine Stewart monarchs ruled just Scotland from 1371 until 1603.

Armorial of the Stuart monarch for use in England, 1603 onwards
After this there was a Union of the Crowns under James VI & I who had become the senior genealogical claimant to all of the holdings of the extinct House of Tudor. Thus there were six Stuart monarchs who ruled both England and Scotland as well as Ireland (although the Stuart era was interrupted by an interregnum lasting from 16491660, as a result of the English Civil War). Additionally at the foundation of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union, which politically united England and Scotland, the first monarch was Anne of Great Britain. After her death, all the holdings passed to the House of Hanover, under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 4:37 pm


Many royals are buried at Westminster Abbey.
St. Edward the Confessor was the first monarch buried there, in January 1066.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 4:47 pm

George II (George Augustus; German: Georg II. August; 30 October 1683 (O.S) 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death.

He was the last monarch interned at Westminster Abbey.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 11:35 pm


George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 29 January 1820)
was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death.
At the age of 22, George succeeded to the crown when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday.
The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day.
A fortnight later, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey.
George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage.

They had 15 childrennine sons and six daughters.
In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat. His other residences were Kew and Windsor Castle.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Thu May 19, 2011 11:48 pm


Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901)
Victoria wearing her small diamond crown, 1882.
She was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively few direct political powers. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

She married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their 9 children and 26 of their 42 grandchildren married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".

Prince Albert, Queen Victoria and their nine children, 1857.
Left to right: Alice, Arthur, The Prince Consort, The Prince of Wales, Leopold (in front of him), Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria and Helena

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Fri May 20, 2011 12:06 am


Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 6 May 1910)
was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. He was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was renamed the House of Windsor by his son, George V.

Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the title of Prince of Wales and was heir apparent to the throne for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long widowhood of his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded from political power and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite.

Once widowed, Queen Victoria effectively withdrew from public life. Shortly after Prince Albert's death, she arranged for Edward to embark on an extensive tour of the Middle East, visiting Egypt, Jerusalem, Damascus, Beirut and Constantinople.[19] As soon as he returned to Britain, preparations were made for his engagement, which was sealed at Laeken in Belgium on 9 September 1862.[20] Edward and Alexandra married at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 10 March 1863. Edward was 21; Alexandra was 18.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Fri May 20, 2011 12:18 am


George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 20 January 1936)
was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War (19141918) until his death in 1936.

George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 until 1891 he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales. On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Fri May 20, 2011 12:25 am

In November 1891, George's elder brother Albert Victor became engaged to his second cousin once removed, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck. Six weeks after the formal engagement, Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, and likely to succeed after his father. Queen Victoria still regarded Princess May as a suitable match for her grandson, and George and May grew close during their shared period of mourning. A year after Albert Victor's death, George duly proposed to May and was accepted. They married on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal in St. James's Palace, London. Throughout their lives, they remained devoted to each other.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:01 pm


Edward VIII
(Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936.

Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay. As a young man, he served in the British Armed Forces during the First World War, undertook several foreign tours on behalf of his father, George V, and was associated with a succession of older, married women. Edward remained unmarried after his accession as king.

Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American socialite Wallis Simpson, who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that the people would never accept a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands as queen. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as head of the Church of England, which opposed the remarriage of divorced people if their ex-spouses were still alive. Edward knew that the government led by British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have dragged the King into a general election and ruined irreparably his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. Rather than give up Mrs. Simpson, Edward chose to abdicate. He was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, who chose the regnal name George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British and Commonwealth history. He was never crowned.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:20 pm


George VI
(Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India, and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He served in the Royal Navy during World War I, and after the war took on the usual round of public engagements. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923, and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret.
King George VI, Princess Margaret, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) and Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother), June 1, 1937.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:22 pm


Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) married Prince Philip at Westminster Abbey on Nov. 20, 1947.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:33 pm

George VI's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. In October of that year, she toured Canada, and visited President of the United States Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C.; on the trip, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration for use if the King died while she was on tour. In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of Elizabeth's father. Philip broke the news to the new queen. Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course". She was proclaimed queen regnant throughout her realms, and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace.

Queen Elizabeth II sits in Westminster Abbey, June 2, 1953, on her coronation day in London. Elizabeth was proclaimed Queen in 1952 at age 25. Her coronation was the first worldwide televised event.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:57 pm


Coronation portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh, June 1953

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:58 pm


Queen Elizabeth II carries an orb and scepter during her coronation
ceremony at Westminster Abbey, June 2, 1953, in London.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 11:27 pm


The newlywed Princess Margaret, the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II,
leaves hand-in-hand with her husband, Antony Armstrong-Jones, from
Westminster Abbey on their wedding day May 6, 1960. They divorced in 1978.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 11:34 pm


Princess Diana poses in her dress before her wedding to Prince Charles in London
on July 29, 1981. The ceremony was watched by 3,500 invited guests and an
estimated 1 billion television viewers.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 11:41 pm


Diana stands with her husband-to-be, Prince Charles, before their wedding at
London's St. Paul's Cathedral on July 29, 1981. The couple separated in
December 1992, and their divorce was finalized in August 1996.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 11:45 pm


Princess Diana and Prince Charles at their wedding at St. Paul's Cathedral in
London on July 29, 1981. The train of the bride's dress was over 25 feet long.

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PostSubject: Re: British Royal Family   Mon Jun 13, 2011 11:52 pm


Princess Diana on her wedding day, July 29, 1981. A crowd of 600,000 people
filled the street in front of St. Paul's Cathedral to get a glimpse of the royals.

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